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Malla-Sainthwar-Rajput History: The journey from Santhagara to Sainthwar

From Vedic Era till 2011 AD, From Epics of Ramayana-Mahabharata till Census of British India, From ruling families of Mahajanpadas till landholding community of British India, From practicing ancient democracies as Gana-Sangha till residents of Bharat Gana-rajya.

Read full history of Mall - Sainthwar - Rajput community online at - click here to read   covered in 10 chapters, spreading over 450 pages with approximate 250 references of online books written by some well-known authors of India.

If you want to have a glance of content inside book, just read below and click at the marked places to read it further:

Malla - Sainthwar - Rajput Community: The landholding community of Gorakhpur province and United provinces of Agra and Oudh of British India

In Gorakhpur Province, the Census of North-West Provinces, 1865 records the population of Malla - Sainthwar caste at 59,823, of Bhumihar caste at 30,739, of Rajput caste at 1,23,238 and of Kurmi caste at 171,005 [1]. There were total 35 castes having occupation or earning source as agriculture in the early census of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (present Uttar Pradesh) with only 4 castes as landholding castes; namely Bhumihar, Rajput, Sainthwar and Taga (Tyagi)............... click here to read more.

1. Malla (Sainthwars) Kshatriyas in 600 BC India:
The small kingdoms or janpadas were merged into big monarchs known as Mahajanpadas. They were sixteen in number and referred as the Solasa Mahajanpada of ancient India; refer Fig 1.3. The period also witnessed the rise of small republican states in certain regions, referred as Gana or Sangha.* Most states derived their name after the ruling tribe of that region, for example Malla, Kuru and Panchala were the name of ruling tribes...... click here to read more

2. Procreative relationship in ancient time:
Shakya and Lichchhavi tribes, who populated northern India in the late Vedic period, practiced relationship between kin. They did so to maintain purity of their Kshatriya blood and proudly claimed origin of their community from the marital ties between brothers and sisters. In the Ambattha Sutta, Buddha tells the origin of his Shakya clan from the marital ties between brothers and sisters........  click  here to read more

3. Mall - Sainthwar Kshatriya in epic Ramayana and Mahabharata:
Valmiki Ramayana traces the origin of first Malla as the son of Lakshmana. According to commentary in it,................................  It is evident from Mahabharata (VI.9.46) which mentions Mallas as eastern tribes along with Angas, Vangas and Kalingas (the residents of Bengal and Orissa). It further mentions the country as Malla-rashtra (VI.9.34) and shows Bhima conquers the Malla King during Rajysuya yajna of Yudhisthra at Indraprashta (II.30.3). As they were conquered, the Malla King participated in the Mahabharata war from the Pandava’s side, though no casualty of either King or Prince is reported. By the end of the late Vedic period, Malla territory rose to prominence as monarch................... click here to read more

4. The Mall - Sainthwar republics:
On the political front, the entire region saw the emergence and coexistence of monarchs such as Kasi, Kosala and Magadha with small republics known as Sangha or Gana. The details of the republics are preserved in the Buddhist and Jain texts. It consisted the Shakyas of Kapilvastu, the Mallas of Pava and Kusinara,................  click here to read more

5. The ancient settlement of Mall - Sainthwars:

Malla - The ruling tribes of Malla are referred as Suryavanshi Kshatriyas with Vasetthas gotra in Buddhist and Brahmanic literatures. They find their mention as Mallas in Pali text, Mallai in Jain Text and Mallakas in Arthasastra by Chanakya where he refers them as people living with the title Raja. There is mention of nearly five hundred Malla Rajas (Santhagara members) during the Buddha Period. The tribe had their major settlements at Aniruddhawa, Bhogagamanagara, Sathiawan, Anupia, Khukhundo, Kahaon and Bhagalpur other than Kusinara and Pava which were also their capitals.....Other than these places, the present Kakradih and Majhauli are also designated as two of the navmallikis related to the Mallas of Pava by historians like Rahul Sankrityayan, Dr. Rajbali Pandey and Buddhamitra T.M.B. due to the presence of strong Malla titled population. While Kakradih, famously referred as ‘Mallai Taluka’ from the time immemorial, is located on the south of the River Ghaghara (Sarayu) in Mau district of Uttar Pradesh, Majhauli is located in Deoria district in the same state. However the ancient name of both places in Buddhist texts cannot be traced. Based on these findings, the Malla territory is believed to be spread from Devgaon-Devurwa of Nepal in north till Mau district of Uttar Pradesh in south covering entire Maharajganj district, Sahjanwa, Barhalganj and border areas of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.................. Click here to read more

Shakya - By the end of the Vedic period, Ulump, Khomduss, Chatum, Devdah, Medloomp, Bedhajja, Sakkar, Samgram, Shilavati, Kapilvastu and Lumbini emerged as major settlements in the Shakya territory.............Their territory was bounded by Himalaya in the north and by the Malla country in the northeast. It shared borders with the Koliyas in the east with River Rohini (present Kohna) as dividing line and with the Kosala Kingdom in the south and west with River Rapti as dividing line. In present time, Shakya territory seems to be entire Siddharthnagar, northern part of Basti and some part of Maharajganj districts of Uttar Pradesh and Terai belt of Nepal. Kapilvastu, the main city of Shakyans is a disputed area........................  click here to read more

Koliya - The Koliya territory was surrounded by the hills of Nepal in the north, by the Mallas in the northeast, by the Mauryas of Pipphalivana in the east, by the Kosala Kingdom in the south and west with River Anoma (present Rapti) as dividing line and by the Shakyas in the northwest with River Rohini as dividing line. Thus the country of Koliya was a thin strip of land spread from River Ghaghara in the south till the northern hills of Nepal. It covered around 32 km from east to west. Their villages figured in the Buddhist literatures are Uttara, Kakkarapatta, Sajjanela, Haliddavasana, Kundia / Kundi and Sapuga [22]........Based on all these arguments, the capital of Koliyas ‘Ramagrama’ was identified by Cunningham as Deokali - a city between Kapilvastu and Kusinagara, Rampur-Deoria by Sir Karlail, Ramgadh Taal of Gorakhpur by Dr. Rajbali Pandey, Dharmauli by Sir Smith and Vanarsinha village of Nautanwa in Maharajganj district by T.M.B. Buddhamitra [23]......... click here to read more.

Maurya - The Mauryas were known as Suryavanshi Kshatriyas with Kashayapa Gotra. Their territory was surrounded by the Mallas in the north and the east, by River Ghaghra in the south, by the Kosala Kingdom in the southwest with River Anoma (Rapti) as dividing line and by the Koliyas in the northwest who also acted as dividing line between them and the Shakyas. The territory covered roughly 40 km from east to west and 80-90 km from north to south......................... Based on it, the capital of Mauryas is believed to be located somewhere in the Bansgaon region of the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh [25].............. click here to read more.

Buli - In present time, the area ruled by Bulis cannot be traced except the understanding that it was close to Kusinara as they and the Brahmins of Vethadipa demanded the relics of Buddha and built stupa over it. On the legacy front, the Bulis because of their republican governance, proximity with Kusinara and following Buddhism, could be forming a small section of the Santhavara group of Kshatriyas led by the Mallas (the Sainthwars................... click here to read more.

6. The Santhagara - The way of administration and origin of "Sainthwar / Santhavar" name for Kshatriyas of Gana - Sangha
It is evident from many historical events that the republican states took their decisions, either social or political, through common agreement between its members. For this, they had a meeting place or the general assembly point, known as Santhagara. It is a Pali / Sanskrit word derived from the combination of Santha / Sanstha (group) and Agara (the house or assembly point). The membership of the assembly, referred as sangha or gana, was restricted to same clan male adults having a minimum age of 20 years.............. click here to read more.

7. Bandhula Mall vs Lichchhavi republic of Vaishali:
Except Magadhan Empire, the Lichchavi tribe was in good terms with Kosala and Malla except some cases as that seen from the incident of Bandhula Malla. After the Buddha’s death,............
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8. Mall - Sainthwar helping Kosala Prince against King Prasenjit of Kosala:
After listening it, the prince felt ashamed and enquired about the matter from his father. He became furious to know that Pasenadi was aware of it. He decided to take revenge from his father and the Shakya’s of Kapilvastu. After some period, he successfully displaced Pasenadi with the help of Mallas. He then went............. click here to read more:

9. Mall of Kusinara (Sainthwars) getting message from Mauryas for Buddha ashes:
Although Kusinara had been near to Pipphalivana yet Mauryas were the last one to arrive at the funeral site. When the ashes were already distributed, the Malla kings got the request from the Mauryas for sharing of the relics. It has been referred in the Digha Nikaya of Maha-parinibbana-sutta as  –

atha kho pipphalivaniya moriya kosinarakanaj mallanaj dutaj pahesuj:

'bhagava pi khattiyo mayaj pi khattiya|
mayam pi arahama bhagavato sariranaj bhagaj
mayam pi bhagavato sariranaj thupab ca mahab ca karissamati|'

The message was brought by a Brahmin which reads ‘The envoy has been sent to Kosinarka Malla by Pipphalivana Moriya................
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10. Coordination between republic  rulers:
According to Buddhist literatures, the Lichchhavis formed a league with Videha and together they were called as Vajjis. The Lichchhavis had once formed a federation with their neighbor Malla. The federal council was composed of eighteen members, nine Lichchhavis and nine Mallas. In the federation, both parties were having equal rights even though Malla were not a great power as Lichchhavis..... click here to read

11. Malla - Sainthwar republic Kshatriyas exercising class / caste superiority over others:
The republic states were closely associated with the warrior tribes and named after the ruling Kshatriya clan or King. Literatures report that in republics, unlike the monarchy, only two Varnas existed. The first and foremost was ruling Kshatriya Varna and the second was Dasa Karmakara Varna. Land, which resembled power, was mostly owned by the political elite Kshatriyas which comprised kings, nobles, ministers, military commanders and other officers. These populations exercised their rights on land and also on other things which they liked. The story of Lichchhavis, whereby they didn’t allow an exceptionally beautiful woman Amrapali to marry but made her to belong to all Lichchhavi men by declaring her as nagarvadhu, is an example of extraordinary rights of Kshatriyas. Rice cultivation was the main agricultural activity in republics and there are evidences of Dasa-Karmakaras (slaves and laborers) in the fields of Raja-Kulas (the land owning Kshatriya Clans). The Jatkas report that many Kshatriyas took considerable interest in learning Vedas... click here to read more

12. Caste supremacy in republics:
In the entire episode, Brahmin Ambattha accepted the superiority of Kshatriyas over Brahmins based on the social status of children born out of wedlock between Kshatriya father – Brahmin mother, Brahmin father – Kshatriya mother and outcasted Kshatriyas and outcasted Brahmins. Buddha based on above social facts reiterated that ‘whether one compares women with women, or men with men, the Kshatriyas are higher and the Brahmans inferior.............................................Other than the Brahmins, there were people living in these territories whose occupation and social status make it clear that they were none other than Shudras or labor class. However there is no mention of any such word in Buddhist and Jain texts. This class included few artisans who were involved in their hereditary professions such as potters (kumbhakara), smiths (kammara), ivory-workers (dantakar), carpenters (vaddaki) and so on. .........................
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13. Caste supremacy struggle between Malla - Sainthwar Kshatriyas and Brahmins:
By 600 BC, the warrior class raced far ahead than the priestly class with respect to land holding and political power. They also participated and challenged the priestly populations in the field of spirituality and religious activities. Though there can be always a debate on the point that who enjoyed the supreme status in the society till the Gupta Empire, but in the republican states of the east of the Aryavrata they were the Kshatriyas who undoubtedly occupied and enjoyed the supreme position in society. In the enumeration of castes in the Milindapanha (5, 122, 331), the Kshatriyas precede the Brahmins. The superior status of the Kshatriyas is pointedly brought out in the Pali Nidanakatha (i 49) and the Sanskrit Lalitavistara (i 20) [8]. The superiority is also clear from the legend in which Buddha wished to reborn as Kshatriya and not as Brahmin............ Jain Suttas also say that the Kshatriyas occupied the foremost position in society. No Tirthankara was born into a clan other than that of Kshatriya and a legend also says that Mahavira was removed from the womb of Brahmini Devananda and placed in the Kshatriyani Trishala as tirthankara can not born in other clans than of Kshatriyas [9]. This legend clearly indicates the sentiment prevailing in Jain followers of that time about the greater status of the Kshatriyas over Brahmins.................. click here to read more.

14. Siddhartha in Malla – Sainthwar ruled territory before becoming Buddha:
He crossed the River Anoma and entered into the Anupiya town of Malla republic. He cut off his long hair with his own sword and removed the royal cloth............ click here to read more

15. Buddha in Malla- Sainthwar ruled territory initiating pravajja:
His only son Rahul was then 7 years old.  There he initiated Rahul for pravajja and thus stopped his family chain there itself. He then went to Anupiya town in Malla territory. There around hundred Shakya adults were waiting for him to initiate pravajja for them. The Shakyans .............  click here to read more

16. Malla - Sainthwar Kshatriyas becoming follower of Buddha:
Some Kshatriya personalities of these republics whose name frequently appears in various Buddhist texts are – From Shakya clan: Ananda, Bhadidya, Aniruddha, Bhirugu, Mimbil, Devdatta, Rahul  (son of Buddha), queen Mahaprajapati Gautami, princess Tishya, Abhirupa Nanda, princess Mitra, princess Sundari Nanda alias Janpad Kalyani Nanda etc. From Malla clan: Pukkush Malla Putra, Dabba, prince Siha, prince Yashdant, prince Godhik, prince Subahu, prince Wallilya, prince Uttaim, prince Suman etc [3]. From Lichchhavi clan: Mahali Lichchhavi, Mahanam Lichchhavi, Abhaya Lichchhavi, Mandak Lichchhavi, Maddip Lichchhavi and Ottha Lichchhavi were main upasakas of Buddha. Prince Bodhi, prince Abhaya, prince Jaysena, King Udayan and King Papasi also figured as the upasakas of Buddha........... click here to read more.

17. Mall – Sainthwar King forcing and punishing people not welcoming Buddha (enforcing own religious belief or inclination on others):
According to the Kusinara Sutta, Buddha once visited the place on the invitation of Kusinara Chief Vajrapani Malla. He stayed in the forests of Baliharan with his 250 disciples. The chief then ordered to assemble one person per family to receive the Lord Buddha in the town failing which they would be fined 500 pieces (of money). The order clearly indicates that not all Mallas and the other population living in the Malla republic were...................
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18. Nirvana of Mahavira in the courtyard of Malla – Sainthwar King:
According to Jaina Kalpasutra and Parisista-parvam, Mahavira attained nirvana in the courtyard of King Hastipala Malla of Pava (Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh). The last rite was attended by the nine Malla Rajas, nine Lichchhavi Rajas and others including the ruling classes of Kosala and Kasi. The moment has been recorded in Kalpasutra as -

Kasi Kosalaga, Navmallai, Navlichchhavi

Attharas ganarajyon, amavasaye posdhopawas parita.’

As an honor to the great sage, four beautiful Jain temples were built by the rulers at the spot where Mahavira left his mortal existence. Nearly...
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19. Mahaparinirvana of Buddha in Malla – Sainthwar ruled territory:
By evening Buddha along with Ananda and other monks reached to the outskirts of Kusinara. .................He asked Ananda to meet Malla Kings and to inform them about his passing away this night. That time, Malla kings were assembled in their town. After hearing the news, they wept and expressing their grief in various ways reached to the spot with family........................ He convinced the Mallas of Kusinara and divided the relics in eight parts. Each group was then given one part who built stupa over it. The eight parties were – 1. Malla of Kusinara, 2. Malla of Pava, 3. Koliya of Ramagrama, ................ Thus 8 Stupas, 9th Kumbha Stupa and 10th Angara (Ember) Stupa were built on the remains of Buddha. ......................click here to read more

20. King Ajatshatru of Magadha defeating Mall – Sainthwar Kings:
Two years before the death of Buddha, Shakya republic of Kapilvastu was already devastated by King Vidudabbha of Kosala. After the death of Buddha, Malla republic was conquered by King Ajatshatru of Magadha. Ajatshatru continued his aggression and took war on the Lichchhavis of Vaishali for nearly 16 years in which the latter were finally defeated...... click here to read

As per the Jaina text of Bhagawati sutra, Ajatshatru continued with his aggression and conquered most of the eastern parts of India around Ganges that covered 2 kingdoms of Kasi and Kosala along with 36 republican states that included nine Mallas states, nine Lichchhavi states and 18 other republican states........click here to read more

21. Malla - Sainthwar republic Kshatriyas and birth of Chandragupta Maurya:
In the next 100-150 years after the Buddha’s parinirvana, republican states as independent powers were completely vanished. In the period of the Nandas, the Kshatriyas of the republics were killed in masses and the female Kshatriyas were made royal servants. Buddhist literatures like the Digha Nikaya, Mahavamsa and Divyavadana suggest that in a war with the neighboring Kingdom, the Maurya chief of Pipphalivana village died leaving his family destitute. He died while serving as loyal troops of Shishunagas who fought with the armies of Mahapadma Nanda. His helpless widow Mura was escorted by her brothers. She escaped to the city called Pushpapura (also known as Kusumapura or Patiliputra) where she gave birth to Chandragupta in 340 BC [3]. The families of displaced Kshatriyas were living in hiding from... click here to read more.

22. Malla – Sainthwar as Vratya Kshatriya in Manusmiriti:
According to Manu, a twice born (dvijati) produces on a similar woman (savarna), those who do not observe vrata (sacrifices) and these people who are not entitled to the sacred thread ceremony are called Vratya. He listed many tribes present in the society of that time as Vratyas and also mentioned about few who were even degraded to the level of Shudras or labor class. In the list, Bhurjakantaka, Avantya, Vatadhana, Pushpadha and Saikha tribe are listed as Vratya Brahmins. The tribes of Jhallas, Mallas, Lichchhavis, Natas, Karanas, Khasas and Dravidas are listed as Vratya Kshatriyas.......
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23. Prevalence of cross-cousin marriages in north India till 500 AD:
Historically there are many examples which support the prevalence of cross-cousin marriage across northern India before the composition of Manusmiriti. The marriage of Ashoka’s daughter Sanghamitra with his sister’s son is one such example. The tradition of marriage in close family members of Shakya tribes is another such example. Even in the early Vedic age civilization, epic Mahabharata shows Arjuna marrying his maternal cousin sister Subhadra.............. click here to read more

24. From Buddhist (Mall – Sainthwar, Bhumihar and Gorakhnath) to Hindu Shaiva followers (Mall – Sainthwar, Bhumihar and Goarakhnath) in 12th century AD :

The disappearance of Buddhism in eastern Uttar Pradesh: In the midst of these developments the Buddhist center of Nath Sampradaya, situated in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh, finally embraced Shaivism leading to the merger of Buddhism and Hinduism in one fold. The merger was facilitated by Guru Gorakhnath who, according to Bengal and Tibetan traditions, was originally a Buddhist* but after accepting Shaivism put great efforts for merger of the Mahayana sect of Buddhism with Hinduism. All these factors................ click here to read more.

25. Status of Buddhist (Vratya Brahmins and Vratya Kshtariyas) in Hindu society after 12th century AD:
In Kshatriya populations, similar to Buddhist Brahmins, few who never left their Brahmanic rituals completely even after adopting Buddhism, retained their Vratya Kshatriya status in view of orthodox Brahmins after the extinction of Buddhism. This is evident from the example of Gupta King Samudragupta...............
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26. Riderless horse, decorated elephant statues under tree of Buddhism in Gorakhpur to Dih baba and Kali Maiya of Hinduism after 12th Century AD :
Other than the human form of elephant headed deity, the worship of stone images of elephant having appearance of Vahana continued in the regions belonging to ancient republics or the land of initial Buddhism i.e. Gorakhpur and the surrounding regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh............. Click here to read more.

27. Upper caste population - a Brahmanism following phenomena and not economical or occupational phenomena:
In the census, the regions which had large Dravidian, Mongoloid and Negroid population and followed anti-Vedic faiths such as Buddhism, Jainism and other aboriginal cults, show a higher Shudra Varna population that also included despised and out-caste populations. On the other side, the epicenter of Brahmanism and the settlement of Indo-Aryans i.e. Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan recorded the highest upper caste population.................. click here to read more.

28. Caste based atrocities with Shivaji and Vivekananda:
The very hostile approach of orthodox Brahmins toward shudra classified Kshatriyas is preserved in the history of 17th century Maharashtra. The event belongs to none other than the great Maratha King Shivaji who founded the Maratha Empire by fighting with Mughal Empire when most Rajputs/Kshatriyas of northern India accepted the subordination of the Mughals. The entire event goes like this................................................... Even though the Sat-shudras occupied superior position amongst Shudras still their socio-religious position was not good in the society of Bengal. It can be seen from the example of Swami Vivekananda, a Kayastha by birth. Swami was manhandled near the Dakineshwar temple for the reason that why a Shudra became monk which according to the scriptures, does not have such rights....... click here to read more

29. Difficulty in tracing ancient communities:
Out if many such books, some have been recovered only after a long time gap. Arthshashtra, written by Chanakya, was lost by the end of Gupta Empire and was not discovered until the early 20th century. Its translation from Sanskrit to English and Hindi did not occur by 1915. Its subsequent translations into other languages did not take place until the 1920s and 1930s. This way, the contents of Arthshastra were out of the reach of early historians and anthropologist for long period. The story is not different for King Ashoka whose Chakra is placed at the center of the Indian flag and the Lion capital of Sarnath accepted as the National Emblem of India. Ashoka was forgotten for almost 1,000 years before rediscovering to India by British archeologist in 1850s. ........... click here to read more

30. Mall – Sainthwar community from 600 BC till 1921:
The Malla - Sainthwar community, popularly known as Saithwar, is thickly settled in Gorakhpur, Deoria, Maharajganj, Kushinagar and Mau (Natthapur Pargana) districts of Uttar Pradesh. The scattered population is found in Basti district of Uttar Pradesh, western parts of Bihar, Kapilvastu, Rupandehi, Nawalparasi and Chitwan districts of the Terai belt of Nepal. Geographically, the present settlements of the Mall - Sainthwar exist on the land of ancient Gana-Sanghas which were ruled by the Kshatriya tribes of the Mallas, Koliyas, Shakyas and Mauryas,............... click here to read more

31. Census of India and research by various authors:
The Census of North-West Provinces, 1865 records the population of Sainthwar at 59,823 and 2,573 under the title of ‘Koormi Sainthwar’ in Goruckpore and ‘Mull’ in Azimgurh respectively........... click here to read more.

32. Population of Malla – Sainthwar community on time scale:
The population of Mauryas, Mall-Sainthwars and Bhumihars are found in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. It is fair to assume that these communities could have shown similar growth in population as that witnessed by states in the period of 1901 to 2011. On bigger time scale, the population of India before the Common Era is estimated to be nearly half of that recorded in the census of 1871 or 1921. Based on it, the population of the ancestors of the three communities........... click here to read more

33. Mall – Sainthwar community: past to present evolution:
The ancient texts mention Malla, Maurya, Shakya and Koliya as the few ruling or warrior tribes in and around Malla mahajanpada. Within them, the Shakyas and Koliyas are especially shown as agriculturist tribes. Except Koliya who are referred as Nagavanshi, the other three tribes are referred as Suryavanshi. As Koliyas were serpent worshippers, the tribe belonged to Naga populations. The same is confirmed from the visit of Ashoka to Ramagrama, the capital of the Koliyas. Ashoka encountered a Naga King worshipping the stupa built by the Koliyas............ click here to read more.

34. Mall – Sainthwar population in various censuses from 1865 till 1931:
The population of community from 1865 to 1931 has been given in Table 8.2.2a. The census of 1865 records the total population at 59,823 in Gorakhpur Province while 2,573 in Azamgarh Province (now Mau district). The total population of the community was slightly higher than the above numbers.........
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35. Some Rajput tribes like Kausik, Srinet, Rajkumar etc with their approximate population in 2011 across India.......... click here to read more

36. Evolution of Mall – Sainthwar community:
Concluding, the majority populations of Sainthwar community carry the legacy of ancient Indo-Aryan and aboriginal warriors who turned to atheist faith Buddhism during the Buddha period. They evolved as a community due to their group structure and similar to the Buddhist Brahmins got an ambiguous position in society after the fall of Buddhism. The community also has some Brahmanic Kshatriya / Rajput population in it and they are the BisenMalls of Madhuban, Gaharwars of Padrauna and Rajputs associated with Mahabat Khan’s 1626 rebellion. ................. click here to read more

37. Migration of wounded Rajputs related to Mahabat Khan's 1626 AD rebellion against Jahangir:
Sir H. M. Elliot [14] describes the entire event as ‘Mahabat Khan had cleverly seen through Asaf’s designs, and had brought with him 4000-5000 Rajputs, brave men united in one cause. He had also brought the wives and families of many of them, so that, if driven to extremity, they would fight to the last for the lives and honour of themselves and their families.’.......    click here to read more

38. The clans and villages of Mall–Sainthwar-Rajput communityclick here to read more

39. Bisen Mall population:
Within all Rajput / Kshatriya clans occupying the region of Gorakhpur, Bisen Kshatriyas are most respected. With a total population of approximately 306,000 in year 2011, they are thickly settled in Balrampur, Gonda and Faizabad which also accounts for 1/3rd of their total population. The other major settlements are found in ....................... click here to read more

40. Evolution of Bisen community:
The Bisens are not mentioned in Rajputana anywhere and were never a historical figure before the period of Mughal Emperor Akbar. They rose to prominence only after their good services to Mughal Empire and after migration of Rajputs in these regions in the medieval period. The literary meaning of Bisva Sen, big population number spread across some districts which is the land of initial Buddhism, five different clans and gotras support the view of A.H Bingley that Bisen is probably a title adopted or given to a group of Kshatriya tribes........... click here to read more.

41. Raja Nattha Mall (Madhuban Mall Vanshavali) as Raja Majhauli in Jahangir court in 1605 and 1615 AD:
- I gave 5,000 rupees to Nathu Mal, Raja of Manjholi. 4 A remarkable occurrence was the discovery of a letter from Mirza 'Aziz........... On the 5th Amurdad, to the mansab of Raja Nathmal, which was 1,500 personal and 1,100 horse, an addition of 500 personal and 100 horse was made......................click here to read more

42. Enmity between Bisen clan:
The family relations between the Bisen pattidars became very weak after the episode of Raja Salem. Slowly the families came on the verge of losing their kinship ties as the three pattidars were not participating in any family event held at Majhauli and vice versa.  In subsequent years, Majhauli became more powerful than others. It is recorded that the Majhauli Kings refused to eat bhat with the Chiefs of Gonda, Pratapgarh............. click here to read more

43. The Gaharwar lineage:
The Gaharwars are considered as one of the ancient Kshatriya tribes similar to the Bisens and Chandels with their settlements dating to Vedic age civilization. According to the myths, the daughter of Manu was Ela. She was married to the Himalayan king Chandra’s son Buddha. The son born from this relation............. click here to read more

44. The establishment of Padrauna estate:
In 1564 AD, few Gaharwar Rajputs migrated from the Kantit Raj when it was destroyed by Ali Quli Khan and Bahadur Khan. The family traditions of Padrauna estate say that after killing of his father Dadu Rai, the small prince Bhual alias Bhupal went to Madhuban and stayed with his fufa (spouse of father’s sister) Madhav Mall. Once young, he joined the Mughal army and got the title of "Rai" for his valorous work. Bhual Rai was then known as Rai Bhual Rai. .................. click here to read more

45. Controversy over the lineage of Gaharwars of Padrauna:
L. K. Mall mentions the valor of Bhual Rai while describing about the event in which he defeated the Makwani kings and in return got some land in the form of zamindari (later Padrauna) from Majhauli King during the period of Akbar. However at second place, he mentions the lineage of Padrauna Kings from a servant of King Hom Mall. .................. click here to read more

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